Friday, February 25, 2011

Flying Dinosaur

Ornithocheirus means the term bird hand and wasn't the largest pterosaur ever to take to the skies. Ornithicheirus
This creature was known to have lived in South America and Western Europe during the Middle Cretaceous period (i.e.) around 95 million years ago. Researchers say that it would have got a wing span of about 10 feet and it would have weighed around 70 pounds. Diet of these creatures would have been fish. These creatures had a thin snout and large wingspan with bony protuberance on the end.

Ornithocheirus --that honor belonged to the truly enormous Quetzalcoatlus--but it was the biggest avian reptile of the middle Cretaceous period, since Quetzalcoatlus didn't appear on the scene until tens of millions of years later. Aside from its 10- to 20-foot wingspan, what set Ornithocheirus apart from other pterosaurs was the bony "keel" on the end of its snout, which may have been used to crack the shells of crustaceans, to intimidate other pterosaurs, or to attract the opposite sex?


Discovered in the early 19th century, Ornithocheirus occasioned its share disputes among the famous paleontologists of the day. This pterosaur was named by Harry Seeley, who chose its moniker (Greek for "bird hand") because he assumed Ornithocheirus was ancestral to modern birds.

He was wrong--birds actually descended from small theropod dinosaurs--but not as wrong as his rival Richard Owen, who at that time didn't accept the theory of evolution and thus didn't think Ornithocheirus was ancestral to anything!

Thursday, February 24, 2011


The Giganotosaurus skeleton of dinosaurs resembles that it could come alive at any moment.

The massive reconstruction of the South American dinosaur is a focal point of the international exhibition, “Bigger than T. Rex: Giant Killer Dinosaurs of Argentina,” on display now at the museum.Giganotosaurus skeleton

The exhibit which opened in late January and runs through May 15 has garnered rave reviews from thousands of visitors.

There is great turnout for this particular exhibit, and everyone is really enjoying it,” says Bruce Winslow, director of the Alden B. Dow Museum of Science and the Arts.

We were hoping to average about 3,000 visitors a week, and we had more than 1,200 guests on a recent weekend.Seeing dinosaurs that were “bigger than T. Rex” is amazing, particularly for youthful viewers – and their parents, too.

The so-called “Twin Towers of Terror” includes the 45-foot Giganotosaurus skeleton and its companion, a 24-foot juvenile Mapusaurus skeleton.

The Giganotosaurus, which means giant southern lizard in ancient Greek, was one of the largest known terrestrial carnivores.


Scientists estimate that the huge creatures weighed upwards of 10 tons with a skull length of more than six feet.

As might be expected, assembling the skeleton of the Giganotosaurus presented some unique challenges for the museum staff.

“Before we schedule an exhibit like this, we obviously first have to determine if the specimen will even fit in the space,” Winslow says, adding that 45-foot length of the giant southern lizard ended up being less of a spatial issue than its height.

The head had to be hoisted onto the skeleton using a forklift – that meant we had to have space above the head to maneuver it into position. The crew here made it work.

The multiple components of the big dinosaur arrived via semi truck. Reassembly of the Giganotosaurus involved a team of skilled professionals on the museum staff.

“Everything has to be aligned perfectly,” the director says. “The tail alone came in three sections; each piece had to be hoisted very, very gingerly and set into place.

Monday, February 21, 2011

Dinosaur That Lived During Jurassic Period

Seismosaurus was a sauropod and one of the largest animal ever to walk the earth, whose intelligence was very low in comparison with other dinosaurs.

It is said to be lived during the Late Jurassic Period, 156 million years ago.


It measured half a football field in length, is the longest dinosaur to date.

It is believed that this dinosaur may have lived in herds, but until more evidence is found, such as fossilized foot prints or several skeletons in the same place, this is just a speculation.

So far, paleontologist have only found one Seismosaurus skeleton, but a lot has been learned from it.

This skeleton was more or less complete.

When scientists uncovered the remains of the creature's stomach area they gathered a pile of about 250 gastroliths.

Most of these stones were about 2 inches in diameter and aided this large herbivore by crushing plant material into a pulp.


Seismosaurus had nostrils on top of its head.

It had a small head, and peg-like teeth sitting in front of its jaws.

Its forelimbs were shorter than its hindlimbs.

Its feet had five toes, and one of these was a thumb clawed.

It had a long wip-like tail which may have been used to lash out at a predator with.

Seismosaurus was a long neck dinosaur, bigger even than its close relative, Diplodocus.


The Brachiosaurus that had a long neck, small head, and relatively short, thick tail is said to vary from other dinosaur that roamed the earth.

This difference came from the fact that Brachiosaurus was a giraffe-stanced sauropod, which means that the hind legs of the Brachiosaurus were shorter than the front legs.

This is also the reason why it is referred to as the 'arm lizard'.


Brachiosaurus was named by Elmer S. Riggs, in 1903.

Brachiosaurus was a large plant eater.

This herbivore fed on conifers, ginkgos and cycads.

It was believed to have been between 80 and 85 feet long and weighed between 33 and 88 tons! Brachiosaurus was 23 feet tall, at the hips and stood between 40 and 50 feet tall at the head.

Like other Brachiosaurids, it had chisel-like teeth, its nostrils were on the top of its head, and it had large nasal openings indicating that it may have had a good sense of smell.

Brachiosaurus had 26 teeth on its top jaw and 26 on the bottom for a total of 52 teeth towards the front of the mouth.

The dinosaur lived during the late Jurassic period, about 156 million years ago.

The fossilized remains of the Brachiosaurus have been discovered in Colorado, USA, Tanzania and Portugal.

Brachiosaurus belonged to the phylum 'chordata', which means that the dinosaurs had a nerve chord that was hollow and ended in a brain. Brachiosaurus had socket set teeth and were lizard hipped.

Brachiosaurus was a warm-blooded animal, with large demands for energy by the body, on a daily basis, of probably more than 182 kg of food every day!

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Is a dinosaur being lived in heard?

One of the most compelling evidence that dinosaurs traveled in large herds has just been uncovered in the Republic of Yemen. Researchers found tons of dinosaur tracks, unearthed by a local journalist, which show the footprints of both two-legged and four-legged dinosaurs roving in large groups in the Arabian Peninsula. This was before the Red Sea had formed, so the dinosaur probably just tromped there from Africa.

Fossilized heard of baby Psittacosaurus dinosaur

Some dinosaur species apparently lived in groups, as revealed by fossil evidence, which includes:

  • many fossils found together in bone beds (large deposits of bones of the same species in an area)
  • fossilized track ways of many dinosaurs travelling together
  • large groups of fossilized nests grouped together.

Some dinosaurs may have grouped together for protection like Hypsilophodon, and some may have cooperated for more effective hunting like Velociraptor. Some herds may have been temporary, however, with the dinosaurs simply congregating temporarily at rich feeding grounds.

Dinosaur Heard

Many plant-eating dinosaurs travelled in herds, feeding and perhaps nesting and migrating together. The advantage of congregating in herds was primarily in protection against predators (meat-eating animals).

Maiasaura fossils have been found in a huge group of about 10,000 animals. This strongly indicates herding behavior. These Maiasauras were buried in volcanic ash along with a field of nests and eggs.

Several hundred Coelophysis fossil skeletons have been found in Arizona, New Mexico, and perhaps Utah. Adults and juveniles of this meat-eating dinosaur have been found.
Other dinosaurs that may have travelled in groups were Ornithomimus and Dryosaurus.

Monday, February 14, 2011

Tyrannosaurus rex

Cliche says that Tyrannosaurus rex which weighed 5-7 tons is considered to be one of the deadly dinosaur. But the tyrant king was likely true to the billing. After all its bone-crushing jaws could splinter prey like toothpicks. Scientists wonder whether T. rex was more a lumbering scavenger or a quick and agile predator, but dead or alive, its meals were big, meaty and bloody. And T. rex wasn't the only deadly dinosaur, however. The globe was filled vicious killers.

Physical Description
Tyrannosaurus rex had two legs and was 40 feet long.

It’s jaws were up to 4 feet long and it's teeth grew up to be 13 inches long.

Tyrannosaurus rex had bumpy skin like a crocodile. Some scientists think T. Rex could go up to 15 MPH. The T-REX weighed 5-7 tons.

It’s arms were 3 feet long. T. Rex had a stride length of around 12 to 15 feet.

Tyrannosaurus rex



Young Earth Age:
Alive sometime in the last 6000 years.

Old Earth Age:
According to old earth scientists, T-Rex lived in the Cretacious Period, about 85-65 million years ago.

Diet :
It was a carnivore (meat eating dinosaur).

Fossil locations:
T-Rex fossils have been found in North West America.

Friday, February 4, 2011

Intelligent Dinosaur

Troodon-The Smartest Dinosaur

According to the paleontologists study of dinosaur intelligence they were once regarded as being extremely stupid animals but have been largely appraised more generously since the Dinosaur Renaissance.

This newfound optimism for dinosaur intelligence has led to highly exaggerated portrayals in pop cultural works like Jurassic Park.

Paleontologists now regard dinosaurs as being very intelligent for reptiles, but generally not as smart as mammals.

Popular misconceptions of dinosaur neurology include the concept of a second brain regarding in the pelves of stegosaurs and sauropods.

Encephalization quotient (EQ)

The type of approximation used for the intelligence of dinosaurs as well as with other organisms is their encephalization quotient or brain-to-body mass ratio.

This measure assumes that the animals with the greatest EQs and proportionally largest brains were the most intelligent.

By this measure the most intelligent dinosaur were small–bodied theropods ("coelurosaurs") like Troodon ,followed by the dromaeosaurid dinosaurs (the "raptors," which included Dromeosaurus, Velociraptor, Deinonychus, and others) with EQs of about 5.8.

The dinosaurs with the smallest EQs were basal sauropodomorphs ("prosauropods"), with EQs of about 0.05

Sauropod Model

Wednesday, February 2, 2011

Is Dinosaur Is Small In Size?

For the past millions of year and still ,dinosaurs have been considered to be the largest creatures on land. In the study, of the Journal of Zoology, Geoffrey Birchard, associate professor of environmental science and policy at George Mason University, uncovered a problem with the statistical model used by some scientists in the dinosaur community to estimate the mass of dinosaurs.The equation shows that dinosaurs are much smaller than we thought, but there is no mistaking that they were indeed huge animals.

Smallest Meat-Eating Dinosaur

Developed in 1985, the results of the original equation have been used by scientists to estimate or evaluate a variety of parameters, including brain size and egg size. The problem occurs as a result of transforming the data, which changes the properties of the original data, and creates biases that can affect the predictive results obtained from the equation.

Birchard and his colleagues realized there was an error when they used the equation to determine the weight of living animals such as a hippopotamus and an elephant and discovered that the equation greatly overestimated the weight of these animals.

The researchers developed a new equation for calculating dinosaur mass based on bone dimensions. This equation doesn't require the transformation of data that the original equation uses."The best way to understand the new equation is to think about a building that is built on pillars," says Birchard. "The bigger the building, the larger the pillars must be to support the weight of the building. In the same way, the legs of an animal are the pillars supporting its body."

Friutadens -Jaw(Smallest Dinosaur)

According to Birchard, this new research suggests that some dinosaurs were much more slender than had been thought. It also changes many of the factors scientists have already determined about dinosaurs such as the amount of muscle required to use their bodies and how much they ate and breathed.

Ancients Base Their Dinosaur Drawings on Fossils? Did They

Ancient Art Of DinosaurAncient dinosaur wearing primitive down coat

The presence of dinosaur paintings,images,carvings etc. around the world implies that the ancients knew about dinosaurs .Creationists believe that the ancients’ illustrations of dinosaurs serve as one of the proofs that dinosaurs and humans previously cohabited Earth.

There actually are several lines of reasoning against interpreting the worldwide, antiquated dinosaur carvings as artwork made only from dinosaur fossils. If there were no stories or references from history of men living and interacting with dinosaurs, the ancient dinosaur artwork would be less impressive testimony for the coexistence of dinosaurs and humans.

The evidence is not confined to works of natural history and literature but appears in everyday chronicles of event. Locating, excavating, reassembling, and illustrating dinosaur fossils is an extremely painstaking, complex, time-consuming process.

We know of no evidence of the ancient people around the world excavating dinosaur fossils, reconstructing their skeletons, and then drawing them accurately, as scientists carefully attempt to do in the 21st century.

Dinosaur In Ancient Art

Though scientists since the early to mid-1800s have been excavating dinosaur fossils and attempting to reassemble what they think the dinosaurs looked like, so often they have been wrong in their recreations of these animals.

Some have supposed that the ancients may have based their illustrations of dinosaurs on the fossil record, even various skeptics have alluded to the improbability of dinosaur art from countries like Peru, Mexico, and England being based on fossils.

The case for the coexistence of dinosaurs and humans is cumulative.Truly, if man once lived with dinosaurs, such artwork, stories, and biblical testimony would be expected.

Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Origin Of Dinosaur Color

Rarcheseers announced for the first time that they had been able to place original colors on a dinosaur.This is done by painting in striking stripes on Sinosauropteryx's tail based on new evidence of pigment particles. Researchers haven't glimpsed the actual Jurassic period colors in either Sinosauropteryx or A. huxleyi. Scientists have found evidence of some of the original coloration of a dinosaur, showing that it had rings of orange-brown bristly feathers around its tail. Rendition of Sinosauropteryx's

Under microscopes the scientists can see the fossilized shapes of melanosomes, organelles that provide pigment via melanin. Julia Clarke, an associate professor of paleontology at the University of Texas at Austin said that "This means a color-patterning function—in the early evolution of feathers in dinosaurs”.

Fossils have revealed a lot about the lives of dinosaurs, but researchers always used to think that the fossil record couldn't show what color they were. This implies that fossils tend to preserve an animal's hard parts, like bones and teeth, and not soft parts like skin.

But feathers are made of tough proteins. "And, in fact, they can survive even in conditions where other internal organs, such as muscles and guts and brains and so on, will disappear," says Benton.Color Dino Feather Fossils

"When you look at the feathers, you don't know what the colors were. The feathers are a mixture of brownish colors," says Benton. "They're just preserved either as sort of dirty, whitish, beige kind of color and a kind of darker, equally dirty kind of brownish color."For the first time ever, we have evidence, we believe fairly watertight evidence, of the original color," says Benton.